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At the end of each season, Bundesliga rules indicated that clubs must apply to the German Football Federation DFB for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, which has access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency does it provide approval.
Despite the strong economic governance in the German league, there were still some instances of clubs running into difficulties.
In subsequent years, the club went through extensive restructuring to return to financial health, largely with young home-grown players. Mainly as a result of their lower populations and smaller economies, these and other leagues such as the Belgian, Danish and Scandinavian leagues generate less revenue than those of the bigger nations, and there are currently no clubs in the Deloitte Top 20 from outside the big five leagues, although these are home to a number of extremely well run and successful clubs.
Despite earning only a sixth of Real Madrid's revenue for example, Portuguese club Porto regularly reach the last 16 of the Champions League and have been European champions twice — in —87 and — Porto make use of third-party deals and an extremely effective scouting network, particularly in South America, to purchase promising young players to develop and play in the first team in the near future before eventually selling them for a large profit.
In recent years, however, their dominance has been challenged by the emergence of other clubs such as FC Twente , meaning they can no longer rely on annual infusions of Champions League cash.
A leading councillor said that the move was necessary because of "the idiocy of big money and the game played between millionaires and football agents".
A report from PriceWaterhouseCoopers expressed deep concern at the fragile financial state of Scottish football. However, because of mediocre performances in recent years, the SPL champions no longer qualify automatically for the Champions League group stages and are now largely confined to the much less lucrative Europa League.
There was also concern at the heavy debt being loaded onto some clubs as a result of new owners borrowing heavily to acquire the club and then using future earnings to pay the interest, a practice known as a leveraged buyout.
Liverpool found itself in a similar position after being purchased by Americans Tom Hicks and George Gillett in February Hicks and Gillett placed what was widely believed to be an unrealistic value on the club in the hope of making a vast profit however, for which they were severely criticised in the House of Commons as " asset strippers draining the club with their greed".
The leveraged buyout model is common for normal business ventures where — apart from the actual employees — the overall national impact of a firm collapsing is not particularly significant since other companies will fill the gap in the market.
LBOs have sometimes been defended by those using them as mechanisms to bring greater efficiency and financial discipline to target companies, although there are also examples where they have actually added to an existing problem of debt.
As with debt taken on in an attempt to improve the team, unexpected failure such as not qualifying for the Champions League can cause significant financial problems for clubs loaded with LBO debt.
For these "emotional stakeholders", their club is not a "normal business" but rather an intrinsic part of their lives and often of great social and cultural importance to the local community.
A number of clubs across Europe were historically in a position to spend substantially more than they earned as a result of the benevolence of their owners who made substantial financial gifts to the club, either by paying off existing debt, providing direct injections of cash, issuing extra shares or giving loans which are later written off.
Such a practice adversely affects the market by creating wage and transfer inflation as well encouraging other clubs to spend more than they can afford in an effort to remain competitive.
For example, Internazionale's enormous losses since the mids have been largely underwritten by their president, energy company owner Massimo Moratti.
In the English Premier League, Chelsea 's massive transfer spending since has been paid for by their owner, the Russian oil and gas billionaire Roman Abramovich , while Manchester City is owned by one of the world's richest men, Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan.
Referring to the intention to reduce the plutocratic influence of the "Sugar Daddies", UEFA President Michel Platini said, "If you buy a house, you have a debt but that doesn't mean someone is going to stop you from working.
If you depend only on a rich benefactor however, then the financial model is too volatile. Despite broad approval across Europe, in early , the European Club Association succeeded in delaying the full introduction of the FFP Regulations to give clubs more time to adjust.
Also on the agenda was a proposal to limit squads to 25 players with unlimited under players per team at national and European level, as well as plans to reduce fees paid to agents.
Clubs also agreed that they will not be able to owe each other money, nor will they be allowed to compete in Europe if salaries have not been paid to players or non-playing staff.
Despite the delay, ECA chairman Karl-Heinz Rummenigge , representing Bayern Munich, called the new rules "a magnificent achievement" and pointed out that 93 clubs from 53 countries who attended the ECA's General Assembly in Manchester agreed with the proposals.
He stated, "After only two years of existence, the European Club Association has managed, together with UEFA, to set measures that will shape the future of European club football into a more responsible business and ultimately a more sustainable one.
He said, "We have seen what the proposals are and we would meet the financial break even rules. We as Manchester United have always been run professionally and will continue to be run professionally.
Any money spent on infrastructure, training facilities or youth development will not be included. One of the major criticisms of FFP is the possibility of solidifying the so-called big clubs which generate largest revenue and profits, and can consequently spend more money on transfers.
The financial gulf between successful clubs in the top-tier of European league has had an impact domestically, most notably in the Premier League, where for approximately a dozen years from to there had been an almost complete dominance of the three major domestic English competitions by just three clubs Arsenal, Chelsea, and Manchester United.
During this period, the lack of competition for lucrative Champions League football in England from outside of those four clubs was frequently criticised.
More recently, however, the grip on the four top places in the Premier League that enable automatic entry into the Champions League competition by the incumbent "Big 4" clubs has been eroded somewhat in more recent seasons due to the rise in competitive performance of both Tottenham Hotspur and Manchester City and the relative decline of Liverpool, Arsenal and Manchester United.
Some forums have expressed concern at the potential risk that as clubs become ever desperate to raise "allowable" revenue which will positively affect their balance sheet, they will indulge in questionable U.
For example, many top clubs raise money from selling sponsorship for their playing as well as their away and training kit, and other titles like the "official logistics partner" Like Serveto for Barcelona or "official marine engine partner" Like Yanmar for Manchester United.
Several top clubs have similar deals. To review such practices, UEFA accountants can review related company deals that might be from a sister company or parent company's subsidiary.
Other commentators pointed to actual and possible loopholes in the legislation itself; for example, up until the end of the —15 season, clubs will be allowed to exclude from the FFP calculation the wages of players signed before June as long as they can show an improved trend in their accounts.
In addition, there remains the issue of widely differing tax rates and social security costs to which the European leagues are subject, meaning that some clubs have to pay a player much higher gross wages in order for him to be left with the same net salary as if he belonged to a club in another country.
In addition, the UEFA guidance states that each club's accounts must be audited under the national accountancy conditions applicable in their particular country, which may vary.
One area of concern for English clubs is the practice of third-party ownership. Following the introduction of FFP, the Premiership unsuccessfully lobbied UEFA to review the situation to avoid English clubs being disadvantaged,  and in October , the leading sports lawyer Jean-Louis Dupont told the BBC that the Premier League's third-party ownership rules were not legitimate and that a legal challenge to overturn them would have a "very, very good chance of succeeding".
On 4 February , UEFA confirmed that it intended to ban third-party ownership of players, stating, "We think this should be the case all over the world, certainly all over Europe.
Another big issue for English clubs is the substantial payments made to the lower leagues in the football "pyramid" and to other charities out of their joint Sky TV deal.
These payments cannot be discounted from FFP. The German, Italian and Spanish leagues are not run along this model, with only France's Ligue 1 among the big European leagues having a similar system of voluntary payments to outside interests.
In Italy, where for some time there had been concern at the slow growth in football income and the lack of competitiveness among clubs — partly due to the inequality in TV income — pressure by a number of clubs finally led to the three biggest clubs — Internazionale, Milan and Juventus — agreeing to end the long-standing system whereby clubs negotiated their own TV rights.
Despite the effect the change had by reducing the spending power of his own club, Inter club president Massimo Moratti indicated that he was actually looking forward to the changes, saying, "Some thought that FFP was against owners like me, but I say that at last it means that I can stop putting money into football every day.
I hope that FFP allows us to experience football in a different way. In England, it was during the January transfer window that the most surprising business was done.
As transfer fee was considered as a purchase of a capital, the real effect of transfer fee was the amortisation of the transfer fee, which is proportionally to the contract length.
The club may lower the expense of amortisation by selling players and extending the player contract. Where's the logic in that?
In response, Chelsea chief executive Ron Gourlay insisted that the club were in "a strong position" to meet UEFA's initiatives and were on course to halve their losses during the following financial year, having reduced their players' bonus scheme, negotiated new sponsorship deals, raised ticket prices and were able to count on additional TV revenue from higher Champions League and SKY television rights.
Following news of Manchester City's interim financial results showing another huge deficit, UEFA president Michel Platini said he had been given personal assurances from club management that they would abide by the new rules.
UEFA's Head of Licensing Andrea Traverso also stated, "We are in talks with the club, they are aware of the rules and they probably have a strategy to raise their income.
He stated, "I don't see any circumstances where any of our clubs could get near to exclusion UEFA is too sensible, and it's not in its interests to do so.
It's more about taking the steam out of the system and acting as a speed bump rather than about barring clubs.
This was due to the principle of amortisation — whereby a players transfer fee must be divided out between the number of years in his contract i.
A UEFA statement said,. UEFA is aware of the recent transfer activity across Europe and is confident that clubs are increasingly aware of the nature of its financial fair play regulations which require them to balance their books.
It must be noted, however, that the financial fair play rules do not prevent clubs from spending money on transfers themselves but rather require them to balance their books at the end of the season.
It is therefore difficult to comment on any individual situation without knowing the long-term strategy of each club. The clubs know the rules and also know that UEFA is fully committed to implementing them with rigour.
Although UEFA pointed to some improvements in the situation such as the 6. UEFA's head of legal affairs, Alistair Bell, said, "The system is not going to have much credibility if a big club that is in serious breach of the rules is not punished in an effective way.
For me the sanctions need to be effective enough that people come into compliance with the system, otherwise clubs are going to become disillusioned rapidly.
The general secretary of European football's governing body, Gianni Infantino , said, "This is the last wake-up call.
This trend has to change very quickly to safeguard European football. We must end this negative spiral and gamble for success, these losses cannot continue.
In June , the English Football League announced that clubs in the divisions lower than the Premier League had also agreed in principle to adopt the FFP Regulations at their annual meeting.
Barnsley director Don Rowling said, "There are people that want to put money into their clubs to chase the dream but they will have to face the nightmare at a later date.
This will bring people into the game for the right reasons… now we have a model that is about being sustainable and being clever rather than how big your wallet is at a particular time" Acknowledging that some clubs would not abide by the rules, Rowling continued; "There is so much hype now from people including supporters who want you to chase this dream of getting into the Premiership.
You look at the support base of some clubs and it is very, very difficult to realise their ambitions, that is why there are people who want to buy a club and push it forward.
This is transformational for our business, it allows all of our clubs to work towards a business model that is sustainable. We are currently in a model that is not sustainable so we have clubs that go out of business or teeter on the edge.
Leagues One and Two of English football also made efforts to curb the spending of clubs by introducing salary capping. We live in a world where any decision made is challenged.
Europe the European Union legal system has created that and we see how far Europe has gone. The authority of the legal affairs is challengeable everywhere.
UEFA want to create a situation where clubs with deficits cannot play in the Champions League but I question whether they will be able to force it through.
Will they have the legal power to force that through today? Once they represent a force together, it will be difficult to fight against.
In July , Manchester City announced that the City of Manchester Stadium was to be called "Etihad Stadium" after signing a ten-year rights deal with their existing shirt sponsor, the Abu Dhabi -based airline Etihad Airways.
A number of football figures immediately questioned the validity of the deal because the chairman of Etihad Airways, a company around a third the size of British Airways  and has yet to make a profit since it was launched in , is Hamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the half brother of Manchester City owner Sheik Mansour.
Manchester City pointed out that the sponsorship deal included the development of the entire acre site that would surround the stadium with an expanded football academy and training ground, sports science centre, office and retail space and a 7,seat stadium for youth games.
As infrastructure, the cost of building the Etihad Campus does not count towards the FFP financial calculation because it is not considered to be football-related; however, any income generated will, and therefore will greatly assist Manchester City in meeting the UEFA requirements and providing a vital new revenue stream which could create millions a year for the club.
Manchester City are in the unique position of having acres of vacant land adjacent to their stadium and this potential was quickly recognised by Sheikh Mansour and Khaldoon Al Mubarak just weeks after taking over City in September If we see clubs that are looking for loopholes we will act.
It is not enough to say 'we've got a sponsorship contract and that's OK' if the contract is out of line. You know where the problems are and you know you will have to confirm them.
But on the other hand they are all members of the ECA European Club Association and if they don't follow the rules they won't have the support of the other clubs.
They give us the message that they can get around it by doing what they want. The sponsorship cannot be doubled, tripled or quadrupled because that means it is better if we leave everybody free.
He [Michel Platini] is not stupid, he knows as well that some clubs will try to get around that and at the moment I believe they are studying, behind closed doors, how they can really check it.
That is where Financial Fair Play is at stake. Commentators, however, expressed their surprise that Manchester City had been able to generate such a large sum to re-brand an existing ground which they themselves did not even own.
Liverpool's managing director, Ian Ayre, said that although naming rights were common for new stadiums, there was no precedent for the lucrative re-branding of existing grounds: It was the City of Manchester Stadium or Eastlands for the last nine years and now it's going to be called something different and someone has attached a huge amount of value to that.
I find that odd because it has never been done before. There is no benchmark that says you can rename your stadium and generate that amount of value.
At the Global Sports Forum in Barcelona in early March , it was revealed that UEFA had banned its senior executives from talking about the Manchester City situation for fear of prejudicing any future legal action against the club.
I am not allowed to talk about it. In March , the Council of Europe produced a report which described the deal as an "improper transaction",  recommending that, "UEFA should prohibit clubs from sponsoring themselves or using associated bodies to do so…UEFA will have to take care to ensure their financial fair play rules are not circumvented, and that clubs should not overpay for the rights they acquire.
Clubs will no doubt try to supplement their income if possible. They could for example call on sponsors to invest more so as to reduce or eliminate their deficits…care will have to be taken to prevent any circumvention of the financial fair play rules in this way.
At the beginning of , Manchester City manager Roberto Mancini , faced with a number of injuries and players absent at the African Cup of Nations , admitted for the first time that because of FFP he had been told by senior club management that he would be unable to buy any new players during the January transfer window unless he first moved on existing players, and perhaps not even then.
Across Europe, a number of other clubs confirmed that they were not planning to buy players outright during the transfer window, preferring to rely on loan deals.
Bundesliga CEO Christian Seifert said, "The measures for an improved cost control approved by the clubs in August have borne fruit. The Bundesliga is as popular as never before with fans, sponsors and media partners.
This was reduced to five clubs by the time the group stages of the two UEFA competitions commenced. As many as 12 of these 13 clubs were covering their high net losses with re-capitalisation or decrease in shareholder capital.
All of the biggest five leagues within the regions administered by UEFA i. The big Italian clubs continued to rely heavily on TV money from the Champions League; however, one qualifying place had been lost to the German Bundesliga for the —12 season due to the recent poor performances of their sides in the competition and there was now increasing concern at the stagnant growth of Serie A club's match-day income, sponsorship and merchandising.
Particularly worrying was the state of Juventus', finances. Again, 20 years previously Inter's revenues had actually exceeded that of Real Madrid but now totalled only around half that of their huge Spanish rival.
That means cutting costs and increasing revenues. Inter sporting director Marco Branca admitted that the club could no longer afford the fees paid in the past, declaring, "We have to organise our finances for the financial fair play rules in the next two years.
We are looking for younger players now with great talent who we can develop. There will no longer be patrons that can intervene.
Until now people like Berlusconi and Moratti would be able to support us, but with the fair play it will no longer be possible.
On 20 March , it was announced that UEFA and the European Commission had signed a joint agreement intended to prevent clubs using the EU legal system to challenge the validity of FFP, for example by claiming that it conflicted with anti-competition legislation.
The European Union — who acknowledged the unique "specificity of sport" in the Treaty of Lisbon — policy on sport stated "good governance in sport is a condition for the autonomy and self-regulation of sport organisations".
The rules will protect the interests of individual clubs and players as well as football in Europe as a whole". UEFA general secretary Gianni Infantino said, "Let us be clear, this is not a new law … if anyone was thinking of filing some sort of complaint saying FFP somehow restricts European competition law they would have to file it to the Commission.
This is a big milestone in the enforcement of the break-even principle" . Despite the team finishing fourth in La Liga ahead of schedule, earning a place in the Champions League, Al-Thani, a member of Qatar's royal family, abruptly announced that he had had enough of the uneven distribution of TV revenue in Spain and of criticism by the media, and was now no longer willing to bank-roll the club.
We then thought about the Financial Fair Play… so we had to accept it with weeping hearts. It was impossible for us to turn down the offer.
It has saved us a lot of money in transfers and wages, meaning our finances are secure for many years to come. We will save million euros in two years.
In July, there were renewed concerns that wealthy clubs might try to bypass FFP when Chelsea signed a "commercially confidential" three-year deal under which Russian oil and gas giant Gazprom would become Chelsea's "global energy partner".
Some commentators pointed to Chelsea owner Roman Abramovich's sale of his controlling stake in oil company Sibneft to Gazprom as possibly infringing UEFA rules defining "related-party transactions" as including those where clubs could potentially exert "significant influence" over clubs' sponsors.
Such a move would allow domestic sanctions to be taken over and above any measures taken by UEFA to curb excessive spending by clubs.
There are a lot of clubs within the league that support financial fair play. Even the big clubs now are saying we have to get to grips with costs.
The proposal was not unanimously agreed. Manchester City said that it would prefer to manage their business as they saw fit, while Fulham , who had in the past enjoyed significant financial support from their owner Mohamed Al-Fayed , said that such a plan might "kill the dreams" of other clubs.
It was decided that various possible changes would be discussed over the coming months, with one possibility being the full adoption of the FFP rules in to the Premier League's own rules.
Such a change, however, would require a 14—6 majority by club chairmen. However, UEFA did not specify which article s they failed.
However, the club were also sued by Matteo Ferrari for overdue wages, and news reports claimed that Manuel Fernandes had submitted a transfer request after the club failed to pay his wages.
BJKAS , the list portion of the club, had a negative equity on 29 February for negative TL ,,  The listed company also recorded a successive net loss in consolidated accounts: TL 12,, —07 , TL 1,, —08 ,  TL 29,, —09  TL 48,, —10  TL ,, —11  and most recently TL 84,, in the first nine months of —12 season.
It was reported that Bursaspor had overdue debt to Portsmouth Collins Mbesuma. Meanwhile, another Süper Lig club, Trabzonspor , announced plans to greatly boost their annual income in order to both meet FFP and to provide a guaranteed revenue stream to allow then to expand onto the European stage when they received approval to build a 28 megawatt hydroelectric power plant in the hills above their Black Sea home of Trabzon.
Amid predictions that the huge windfall would spark a renewed wave of excessive transfer spending, the chief executive of the Premier League, Richard Scudamore, expressed his hope that the money would not merely find its way into the pockets of players and their agents and that clubs would use the opportunity to reduce their debts and bring their businesses onto a more secure financial footing, as demanded by FFP.
It should also be able to achieve sustainability. Priority number one is retain and attract top talent but there ought to be a way of doing that while achieving sustainability.
Some of it ought to be used to reduce losses" . The penalty was to temporarily withhold prize money from 23 clubs after they failed to comply with the rules.
It was announced later that 16 of the 23 clubs facing potential prize money withholding had nevertheless received their prize money from European competition as a result of managing to settle their debts before the 30 September deadline.
Because it was also intended to coincide with trade fairs, it ran over into a third year. It commenced in and finished in The first competition included a group stage and also featured some city representative teams instead of clubs.
The eventual finalists were the city of Barcelona and a London XI. While the latter side consisted of players from 11 different clubs, the former was effectively FC Barcelona with one player from RCD Espanyol.
After a 2—2 draw at Stamford Bridge , Barcelona emerged triumphant after winning the return 6—0. A second tournament took place between and This time, the group stage format was abandoned in favour of a knockout tournament.
Barcelona retained the cup, beating Birmingham City 4—1 in the final. The third tournament was held over the course of the —61 season and all subsequent tournaments were completed over one season.
During the early days of European competition, these tournaments were effectively rivals and there was little or no co-ordination between the administrators running them.
The European Cup quickly established itself as the premier club competition, largely because it had the advantage of featuring national league champions and was completed in a single season from the very start.
The efforts of Barcelona ended in failure in both competitions. In the Fairs Cup quarter-finals, they lost 7—6 on aggregate to Hibernian , while in the European Cup, they were beaten in the final by Benfica.
Roma took three games to beat Hibernian in the semi-finals before they progressed to the final.
Birmingham City reached their second final in two years but once again they were defeated. After a 2—2 draw at home, they lost 2—0 to Roma in the return.
The —62 season saw the rules amended to allow three teams from each country to enter. The "one city, one team" rule was temporarily abandoned and two teams represented each of Edinburgh , Milan, and Barcelona respectively Hibernian and Heart of Midlothian , Internazionale and A.
This increase in teams resulted in Spanish teams continuing to dominate the competition. These three clubs won the competition six times between them from to The Fairs Cup saw three all-Spanish finals in , , and The final saw Valencia CF beat FC Barcelona 7—3 on aggregate and in they retained the title after beating Dinamo Zagreb with a 4—1 aggregate score.
They reached their third final in but lost 2—1 to Real Zaragoza in a single game at the Camp Nou. The tournament saw a record entry of 48 teams, testimony to the growing status of the Fairs Cup.
It also produced only the second final not to feature a Spanish team. The competition attracted attention for all the wrong reasons.
Chelsea were pelted with rubbish at Roma and Leeds United fought a bruising encounter with Valencia CF which ended with three dismissals.
Leeds also had Johnny Giles sent off in the semi-final against Real Zaragoza. The tournament saw the emergence of English clubs with Leeds United reaching the final.
The subsequent victories of Newcastle United and Arsenal and a second win for Leeds United saw English clubs winning the last four Fairs Cup tournaments.
The last final saw Leeds United declared winners on away goals after drawing with Juventus 3—3 on aggregate. By replacing the trophy, renaming the competition, and revising the entry regulations, UEFA effectively ended the Fairs Cup.
Among the changes was the abandonment of the "one city one team" rule, which had had a particularly bad effect on English entrants for —70, when Liverpool 2nd , Arsenal 4th , Southampton 7th , and Newcastle United 9th-also holders got the places, at the expense of Everton 3rd , Chelsea 5th , Tottenham Hotspur 6th , and West Ham United 8th.
Everton that year, having come 4th, would have been excluded from the competition due to Liverpool's 2nd-place finish.
On 22 September , a one-off match was played between the first ever winners FC Barcelona and the last ever winners Leeds United of the Fairs Cup, to decide who would gain permanent possession of the original trophy.
Barcelona won this play-off 2—1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 September Archived from the original on 31 August